home sibiu 2007
Sibiu 2007 . calendarul 2007 . Dimensiunea europeana . Orasul Sibiu . Comunicare
sibiu 2007

Home - About Sibiu : HISTORY


Important dates:

1191 The territory of the actual city of Sibiu had been documentary attested for the first time.
1292 Is mentioned the first hospital which is the first hospital build on the actual territory of Romania.
1366 The name of Hermannstadt is mentioned for the first time
1376 Documents mention the existence of 19 small guilds whom members could practice 25 crafts
1380 It's mentioned in documents the first school.
1462 At Sibiu is published the oldest German manuscris in Transylvania.
1494 The first pharmacy on the actual territory of Romania is opened.
1528 The first printing house in Transylvania
1551 Conrad Haas is the worldwide the first man who made experiments with dirigible rockets and 'delta wings'
1557 The first bookshop is opened in town.
1671 Valentin Franck von Franckenstein notifies and draws the attention upon the discovery of methane gas near Bazna by some Romanian shepherds
1692 Hermannstadt becomes the capital of Transylvania and residence of the governor.
1752 The first Theatrical performance in town.
1769 The first theater is opened in the residence of baron Möringer in Large Square.

In the same year at 27 December, Samuel von Brukenthal is installed as Imperial Commissioner and 8 years later he will become governor of Transylvania.
1778 Martin Hochmeister builds the first bookshop and published the first theater magazine in Romania: 'Theater Wochenblatt'.
1782 Franz Josef Müler discovered Telur element
1783 The first school manual in Romanian
1787 The first Orthodox Church is opened
1788 Martin Hochmeister opened the first public theater in the Thick Tower.
1789 Ioan Piuariu Molnar published the first Romanian newspaper
1797 Samuel von Hahnemann opens the first laboratory of homeopathy
1817 At 25 February the Brukenthal Museum opens its gates to the public. It's the first museum in Romania.
1818 The first musical society is founded.
1820 The streets are illuminated at night.
1822 Michael Bielz founded the first lithographic house in Transylvania.
1833 The periodical magazine 'Transylvania' is published.
1846 Johann Strauss and Franz Listz perform in town.
1849 Transyilvania Society for Natural Science is founded
1850 Andrei Saguna founded the first publish house in Romanian
1853 A new Romanian newspaper: 'Telegraful Roman'. It's the oldest newspaper in Romania and SE Europe.
1861 The ASTRA cultural association is founded.
1884 Tribuna newspaper is published for the first time. Director: Ioan Slavici.
1885 The first telephone line is installed in city.
1895 ASTRA comity publishes the first Romanian Encyclopedia ( the 3-rd in Europe)
Museum of Natural Science is opened.
1904 Sibiu is the third city in Austro-Hungarian Empire illuminate with electric power.
The first electric tramway is built. It's the second city in Europe where an electric tramway is used
1905 The ASTRA building is finishes in the City Park
1906 The Orthodox Cathedral is finished.
1914 The new organ is installed in the Evangelic Cathedral. With 6000 tubes is the largest in S-E Europe.
1917 The first cinema is opened.
1919 The name of the city becomes officially Sibiu.
1925 The first radios are sold in Sibiu.
1934 There are 36 newspapers and magazines in German and 24 in Romanian .
1989 Sibiu became the second city in Romania where the anti-Communist revolution started.

The Sibiu area shelters archelogical findings from Late Stone Age, Early Bronze and Iron Age to pre-Roman settlements inhabited by Dacian tribes. Traces of a Roman settlement named Cedonia puts Sibiu on the map of the Dacian Province of the Roman Empire.
Under the pressure of migratory tribes’ devastations, in 271 Emperor Aurelius retreated from Dacia. However, it appears that part of the "vulgar-Latin" speaking population continued to exist in smaller remote communities as proven by findings dating from the 4th to 7th centuries - Roman coins, evidence of early Christianity in sections of Latin inscriptions like the "Donarium of Biertan/Birthälm".

The colonists, named in the documents “teutonici”, “flandres” or “saxones” established around 1150 a settlement called “Villa Hermanni” – Hermannsdorf, later Hermannstadt, mentioned first in a document in 1191 by Pope Celestin III. Hermannsdorf evolved towards urban life and got the rank of city – civitas in 1366.
The German colonists’ settlements united in seven Chairs, which towards the end of the 15th century formed a coherent administrative system called The University of Saxon Nation whilst Sibiu/Hermannstadt became the capital city of the Saxons.
The city grew in importance as it developed a prosperous trade with Hungary, Poland and the southern province of Wallachia.
The craftsmen in Hermannstadt also bartered goods - mainly clothes and tools - with the Romanian population. Production and trade developed and flourished, due to the activity of the guilds.
Their first written regulations (1367) mentioned 19 guilds, with 25 trades. Their number constantly grew. The flourishing period was shadowed by the Turkish danger as invasions followed one after the other beginning with 1394, 1432, 1437 and 1438, when the town successfully resisted against a siege led by the sultan Murad th 2nd.
In 1493 the city’s army reinforced by Romanian troops and led by Georg Hecht ambushed and defeated the Turkish army on their way back after a plunder campaign. The city extended and built concentric fortification walls, towers and bastions. After the Battle of Mohacs in 1526 Turks conquer the capital Buda in 1541 and put Hungary and Transylvania under their authority.
The Humanistic ideas and the Renaissance greatly changed the aspect of the town and its life, prompting the Saxons in 1543 to adopt the religious reformation, converting „in corpore“ to the Lutheran confession. At the end of the 16th century, at the end of some victorious campaigns, the Romanian prince Michael The Brave defeated the Hungarian army in 1599 under the walls of the town and united Transylvania with the province of Wallachia.
As the Turks were defeated by the Austrians at the end of the 17th century, Transylvania became a great principality of the Austrian Empire. The administrative power in the province was exercised between 1692-1790 from Sibiu/Hermannstadt. Although the Saxons preserved their Lutheran confession, the Catholic church embarked on a counter-Reform campaign, promoting the Baroque style with an visible impact on the town‘s architecture.
At the end of the 18th century the governor of Transylvania Samuel von Brukenthal had gathered an impressive library and rich art collections, mentioned since 1773 in the Almanach von Wien.
The collections were opened to the public in 1817 and became later the core of Brukenthal Museum. In the 18th century the town extended over the precinct walls, forming the district Josephin, Terezian and Lazaret. Since beginning with the 1541 only Saxons could have properties inside the walls of the town, the Romanian population settled in these districts.
The reign of Joseph the 2nd, marked by Enlightenment reforms gave in 1781 other ethnic groups the right to live in the town alonside with the Saxons. As a result, the Romanian orthodox bishop Vasile Moga and his church settled in the town. The Romanian population became more and more present in the life of the town, which become around the middle of the 19th century the spiritual centre of the Romanians’ struggle for political emancipation.
The Austrian–Hungarian dualism strippedd the privileges and the territorial administrative autonomy of the Saxons.
Transylvania was annexed to Hungary since 1867. The city witnessed once again an economical flourishing. Between 1840 and 1918, a number of 33 industrial enterprises were active in Sibiu/Hermannstadt. The electric plant was founded in 1896 and the electric tramway appeared in town in 1905.
At the end of World War I, in 1918 the Romanian population decides to unite Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania, followed in 1919 by the Saxons’ Assembly voted for joining in.
Sibiu became the seat of the provisional government until the unification was completed.
Although the number of Romanians in town substantially raised, Sibiu/Hermannstadt remained the main centre of the German culture and education in Romania and witnessed a vivid cultural life of all the ethnic groups.
Sibiu did not suffer distructions during WW II but, after the war, the new communist authorities backed by Moskau began to nationalise the factories and the land while launching waves of pollitical trials and arrests against all oponents. For the population of Sibiu a long suffering began. The communist authorities considered Saxons guilty in corpore for collaborating with the German Reich and many of them were deported in the Soviet Union for forced labour.
Prompted by the dictatorial regime and economic hardships Saxons began in the 70’s to emmigrate to West Germany. The massive emmigration continued even after the Revolution in 1989, leaving in Sibiu only 2.200 Saxons.
As economic hardships and oppression grew during the 80’s, the population of Sibiu was fast to rebel against the communist regime in December 1989, when 91 persons lost their life in the armed clashes.
During the 90’s the city restored its democratical institutions and faces now the task of renewing the infrastructure and raising the living standard of its inhabitants.
Design by MB Solutions © 2005 - 2007, All Rights Reserved